This is the mail archive of the mailing list for the binutils project.

Index Nav: [Date Index] [Subject Index] [Author Index] [Thread Index]
Message Nav: [Date Prev] [Date Next] [Thread Prev] [Thread Next]
Other format: [Raw text]

Re: [1/9][RFC][DWARF] Reserve three DW_OP numbers in vendor extension space

On 16/11/16 14:02, Jakub Jelinek wrote:
On Wed, Nov 16, 2016 at 02:54:56PM +0100, Mark Wielaard wrote:
On Wed, 2016-11-16 at 10:00 +0000, Jiong Wang wrote:
  The two operations DW_OP_AARCH64_paciasp and DW_OP_AARCH64_paciasp_deref were
designed as shortcut operations when LR is signed with A key and using
function's CFA as salt.  This is the default behaviour of return address
signing so is expected to be used for most of the time.  DW_OP_AARCH64_pauth
is designed as a generic operation that allow describing pointer signing on
any value using any salt and key in case we can't use the shortcut operations
we can use this.

I admit to not fully understand the salting/keying involved. But given
that the DW_OP space is really tiny, so we would like to not eat up too
many of them for new opcodes. And given that introducing any new DW_OPs
using for CFI unwinding will break any unwinder anyway causing us to
update them all for this new feature. Have you thought about using a new
CIE augmentation string character for describing that the return
address/link register used by a function/frame is salted/keyed?

This seems a good description of CIE records and augmentation

It obviously also involves updating all unwinders to understand the new
augmentation character (and possible arguments). But it might be more
generic and saves us from using up too many DW_OPs.

From what I understood, the return address is not always scrambled, so
it doesn't apply to the whole function, just to most of it (except for
an insn in the prologue and some in the epilogue).  So I think one op is
needed.  But can't it be just a toggable flag whether the return address
is scrambled + some arguments to it?
Thus DW_OP_AARCH64_scramble .uleb128 0 would mean that the default
way of scrambling starts here (if not already active) or any kind of
scrambling ends here (if already active), and
DW_OP_AARCH64_scramble .uleb128 non-zero would be whatever encoding you need
to represent details of the less common variants with details what to do.
Then you'd just hook through some MD_* macro in the unwinder the
descrambling operation if the scrambling is active at the insns you unwind


Hi Mark, Jakub:

  Thanks very much for the suggestions.

  I have done some experiments on your ideas and am thinking it's good to
  combine them together.  The use of DW_CFA instead of DW_OP can avoid building
  all information from scratch at each unwind location, while we can indicate
  the signing key index through new AArch64 CIE augmentation 'B'. This new
  approach reduce the unwind table size overhead from ~25% to ~5% when return
  address signing enabled, it also largely simplified dwarf generation code for
  return address signing.

  As one new DWARF call frame instruction is needed for AArch64, I want to reuse
  DW_CFA_GNU_window_save to save the space.  It is in vendor extension space and
  used for Sparc only, I think it make sense to reuse it for AArch64. On
  AArch64, DW_CFA_GNU_window_save toggle return address sign status which kept
  in a new boolean type column in DWARF table,  so DW_CFA_GNU_window_save takes
  no argument on AArch64, the same as on Sparc, this makes no difference to those
  existed encoding, length calculation code.

  Meanwhile one new DWARF expression operation number is still needed for
  AArch64, it's useful for describing those complex pointer signing scenarios
  and it will be used to multiplex some further extensions on AArch64.

  OK on this proposal and to install this patch to gcc trunk?

Hi GDB, Binutils maintainer:

  OK on this proposal and install this patch to binutils-gdb master?

2016-11-29   Richard Earnshaw  <>
             Jiong Wang  <>

        * dwarf2.def (DW_OP_AARCH64_operation): Reserve the number 0xea.

diff --git a/include/dwarf2.def b/include/dwarf2.def
index bb916ca238221151cf49359c25fd92643c7e60af..f3892a20da1fe13ddb419e5d7eda07f2c8d8b0c6 100644
--- a/include/dwarf2.def
+++ b/include/dwarf2.def
@@ -684,6 +684,12 @@ DW_OP (DW_OP_HP_unmod_range, 0xe5)
 DW_OP (DW_OP_HP_tls, 0xe6)
 /* PGI (STMicroelectronics) extensions.  */
 DW_OP (DW_OP_PGI_omp_thread_num, 0xf8)
+/* AARCH64 extensions.
+   DW_OP_AARCH64_operation takes one mandatory unsigned LEB128 operand.
+   Bits[6:0] of this operand is the action code, all others bits are initialized
+   to 0 except explicitly documented for one action.  Please refer AArch64 DWARF
+   ABI documentation for details.  */
+DW_OP (DW_OP_AARCH64_operation, 0xea)
 DW_FIRST_ATE (DW_ATE_void, 0x0)
@@ -765,7 +771,8 @@ DW_CFA (DW_CFA_hi_user, 0x3f)
 /* SGI/MIPS specific.  */
 DW_CFA (DW_CFA_MIPS_advance_loc8, 0x1d)
-/* GNU extensions.  */
+/* GNU extensions.
+   NOTE: DW_CFA_GNU_window_save is multiplexed on Sparc and AArch64.  */
 DW_CFA (DW_CFA_GNU_window_save, 0x2d)
 DW_CFA (DW_CFA_GNU_args_size, 0x2e)
 DW_CFA (DW_CFA_GNU_negative_offset_extended, 0x2f)

Index Nav: [Date Index] [Subject Index] [Author Index] [Thread Index]
Message Nav: [Date Prev] [Date Next] [Thread Prev] [Thread Next]