A number of companies and individuals offer support for GNU products. If
as from a support organization, we recommend you
contact that organization first.
You can find contact information for many support companies and individuals in the file etc/SERVICE in the GNU Emacs distribution.
In any event, we also recommend that you send bug reports for
The fundamental principle of reporting bugs usefully is this: report all the facts. If you are not sure whether to state a fact or leave it out, state it!
Often people omit facts because they think they know what causes the problem and assume that some details do not matter. Thus, you might assume that the name of a symbol you use in an example does not matter. Well, probably it does not, but one cannot be sure. Perhaps the bug is a stray memory reference which happens to fetch from the location where that name is stored in memory; perhaps, if the name were different, the contents of that location would fool the assembler into doing the right thing despite the bug. Play it safe and give a specific, complete example. That is the easiest thing for you to do, and the most helpful.
Keep in mind that the purpose of a bug report is to enable us to fix the bug if it is new to us. Therefore, always write your bug reports on the assumption that the bug has not been reported previously.
Sometimes people give a few sketchy facts and ask, “Does this ring a bell?” This cannot help us fix a bug, so it is basically useless. We respond by asking for enough details to enable us to investigate. You might as well expedite matters by sending them to begin with.
To enable us to fix the bug, you should include all these things:
asannounces it if you start it with the ‘--version’ argument.
Without this, we will not know whether there is any point in looking for
the bug in the current version of
If we were to try to guess the arguments, we would probably guess wrong and then we might not encounter the bug.
gcc, use the options ‘-v --save-temps’; this will save the assembler source in a file with an extension of .s, and also show you exactly how
asis being run.
Of course, if the bug is that
as gets a fatal signal, then we
will certainly notice it. But if the bug is incorrect output, we might not
notice unless it is glaringly wrong. You might as well not give us a chance to
make a mistake.
Even if the problem you experience is a fatal signal, you should still say so
explicitly. Suppose something strange is going on, such as, your copy of
as is out of sync, or you have encountered a bug in the C
library on your system. (This has happened!) Your copy might crash and ours
would not. If you told us to expect a crash, then when ours fails to crash, we
would know that the bug was not happening for us. If you had not told us to
expect a crash, then we would not be able to draw any conclusion from our
assource, send us context diffs, as generated by
diffwith the ‘-u’, ‘-c’, or ‘-p’ option. Always send diffs from the old file to the new file. If you even discuss something in the
assource, refer to it by context, not by line number.
The line numbers in our development sources will not match those in your sources. Your line numbers would convey no useful information to us.
Here are some things that are not necessary:
Often people who encounter a bug spend a lot of time investigating which changes to the input file will make the bug go away and which changes will not affect it.
This is often time consuming and not very useful, because the way we will find the bug is by running a single example under the debugger with breakpoints, not by pure deduction from a series of examples. We recommend that you save your time for something else.
Of course, if you can find a simpler example to report instead of the original one, that is a convenience for us. Errors in the output will be easier to spot, running under the debugger will take less time, and so on.
However, simplification is not vital; if you do not want to do this, report the bug anyway and send us the entire test case you used.
A patch for the bug does help us if it is a good one. But do not omit the necessary information, such as the test case, on the assumption that a patch is all we need. We might see problems with your patch and decide to fix the problem another way, or we might not understand it at all.
Sometimes with a program as complicated as
as it is very hard to
construct an example that will make the program follow a certain path through
the code. If you do not send us the example, we will not be able to construct
one, so we will not be able to verify that the bug is fixed.
And if we cannot understand what bug you are trying to fix, or why your patch should be an improvement, we will not install it. A test case will help us to understand.
Such guesses are usually wrong. Even we cannot guess right about such things without first using the debugger to find the facts.